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Tutorials >> Chapter 10: Tables

Tables...

Example of a Table...

What are tables used for?

Tables are used to make data easier to interpret or to just give your document more impact.

<table border=4>
<tr>
<th>What are tables used for?</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Tables are used to make data easier to interpret or to just  give your document more impact.</td>
</tr>
</table>

Tables are one of the most challenging things to code with HTML. It isn't very hard, it just takes a while to get the hang of.
Tables start with the <table> tag, and usually contain the border=n attribute within the opening tag. If the border=0, than
the table's border is invisible. Usually when you do not use the border attribute the table border will become invisible. This is
useful when you want to align text in rows and columns, but don't want a table border around it. border=1 is a thin border.
border=2 is a little thicker, border=3 a little more thick.. and so on. The table MUST end with a </table> tag, or the table will not appear at all!

Example of tables with borders...

This table has a border of 0.
<table border=0>
<tr>
<td>This table has a border of 0.</td>
</tr>
</table>  
This table has a border of 3.
<table border=3>
<tr>
<td>This table has a border of 3.</td>
</tr>
</table>  

Each row within the table is defined by the opening <tr> tag and the optional </tr> closing tag. Within each table row are
table cells, which are defined by the <td> opening and </td> closing tags. Most table rows contain more than one cell.
Many times, you will need a heading for a column of cells of the first row. To do this, you will use the <th> opening and
</th>closing tag. The table heading tag makes the text in that cell BOLD and CENTERED. You only need use the
heading cells when necessary.

Example of a table with multiple rows and columns...

Heading A Heading B Heading C
Cell A Cell B Cell C
Cell D Cell E Cell F
<table border=2>
<tr>
<th>Heading A</th>
<th>Heading B</th>
<th>Heading C</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Cell A</td>
<td>Cell B</td>
<td>Cell C</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Cell D</td>
<td>Cell E</td>
<td>Cell F</td>
</tr>
</tr>
</table>

But what if you want your table to look like the following?

Heading Ath> Heading B Heading C
Cell A & D Cell B Cell C
Cell E Cell F
 
<table border=2>
<tr><th>Heading A</th>
<th>Heading B</th>
<th>Heading C</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan=2>Cell A & D</td>
<td>Cell B</td>
<td>Cell C</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Cell E</td>
<td>Cell F</td>
</tr>
</tr>
</table>
 

Notice how the rowspan=2 attribute was added. This allows that cell to span two rows. If you want a cell to span more than
column, use the colspan=n attribute. Also, you may wish to use the ALIGN and VALIGN attributes to align the contents
of cells. If you wish to change the horizontal alignment of the contents of a certain cell, add ALIGN=LEFT, ALIGN=CENTER,
or ALIGN=RIGHT to the opening <td> tag. If you wish to change the vertical alignment of the contents of a cell, use the
VALIGN=TOP, VALIGN=MIDDLE, or VALIGN=BOTTOM attributes. You may also want to try out the WIDTH=n% attribute, to
change the width of a table or a cell.

Example of ALIGN attributes within a table...

Left Alignment Center Alignment Right Alignment
<table border=1 width=100%>
<tr>
<td align=left>Left Alignment</td>
<td align=center>Center Alignment</td>
<td align=right>Right Alignment</td>
</tr>
</table>

Your own HTML page...

Right click on the image in the centre of the black-bordered box below, and select "Save Image As" / "Save Picture As", or
similar. Save it as "phxsuns.jpg" in the same directory where your home page "Home.htm" is stored.

Image phxsuns.jpg

Tables can be used without borders, to align images and text next to each other. Change the heading of your home page to
a table, like this:

<html>
<head><title>My Home Page</title></head>
<!-- The body starts here - and a background image is loaded -->
<body background="bgnd.gif">

<!-- This is a table: 3 columns, 1 row, no border -->
<table border=0 width=100%>
<!-- Beginning of the row -->
<tr>
<!-- Beginning of the first cell -->
<td align=center>
<!-- The first cell contains an image -->
<img src="fraidbut.gif">
<!-- End of the first cell -->
</td>
<!-- Beginning of the second cell -->
<td align=center>
<!-- The second cell contains the original heading -->
<font color="Blue"><h1>YOURNAME's Home Page</h1></font>
<!-- End of the second cell -->
</td>
<!-- Beginning of the third cell -->
<td align=center>
<!-- The third cell contains an image -->
<img src="fraidbut.gif">
<!-- End of the third cell -->
</td>
<!-- End of the row -->
</tr>
<!-- End of the table -->
</table>

<!-- This is a horizontal line -->
<hr>
.
.
.
</body>
</html>

Save the text file as "Home.htm".

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