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Tutorials >> Chapter 8: Clean Code, Comments, and Escape Codes

Clean Code...

Clean code means that your HTML coding follows all specifications. Here are a few ways to keep your code clean:

  • Don't type special characters into your code, instead type their escape code... many characters should NEVER be typed directly into HTML code... for example the "<", ">", the "©", "&", and the " itself. Instead, type &escape_code; (Ampersand, Escape Code for Character, then a semicolon). For these 5 characters, here are the escape codes...
    • For the < type &lt;
    • For the > type &gt;
    • For the © type &copy;
    • For the & type &amp;
    • For the " type &quot;
  • Use quotes around values in attributes... For example, if you want a horizontal rule that is half of the screen width, type <hr width="50%"> rather than <hr width=50%>, or if you want one that is size 5 type <hr size="5"> rather than <hr size=5>.
  • Don't overlap tags... Overlapping occurs when Tag A starts, Tag B starts, Tag A closes, then Tag B closes. This will cause errors in sensitive browsers. For Example, it will not render correctly in Navigator 4.0 Beta1, Netscape purposefully built into the browser so developers could catch errors.
  • Examples:

    • Wrong Way (Overlaps):
      <font size=+1><b>This is Bold and One Font Size Bigger</font></b>
      Right Way (Doesn't Overlap):
      <font size=+1><b>This is Bold and One Font Size Bigger</b></font>
    • Wrong Way (Overlaps):
      <a href="here.html"><i>This link is italicized</a></i>
      Right Way (Doesn't Overlap):
      <a href="here.html"><i>This link is italicized</i></a>

The Comment Tag...

If you are writing an HTML document, sometimes you may want to put little reminders to yourself with your code so that you will be able to interpret your coding better. A comment will not appear in a web browser when the page is displayed... it is only visible when the source code is viewed. You start commented text with <!-- and end it with -->.


Your own HTML page...

Add the following to your HTML page ("Home.htm"): (the blue text is what to add)

<html>
<head><title>My Home Page</title></head>
<!-- The body starts here - and a background image is loaded -->
<body background="bgnd.gif">

<!-- This is a heading, in blue -->
<center><font color="Blue"><h1>YOURNAME's Home Page</h1></font></center>
<!-- This is a horizontal line -->
<hr>
<!-- My name and the two images are all part of a link - which is a "mailto" link -->
This is the home page of <a href="mailto:YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS"><img src="bullet.gif" border=0><b>YOURNAME</b>.<img src="bullet.gif" border=0></a>
<p>Type something about yourself here. Describe briefly who you are and what you do for a living. Remember to use bold and italic text, for emphasis.</p>
<hr>
<h2>My favourite Web Sites</h2>
<br>

<!-- This list is an unordered list -->
<ul>
<li> <a href="http://www.xencon.com"&gtXenon Web Design</a> </li>
<li> <a href="http://www.microsoft.com"&gtMicrosoft</a> </li>
<li> <a href="http://www.sybase.com"&gtSybase</a> </li>
<li> <a href="http://www.sybase.co.za"&gtSybase South Africa</a> </li>
</ul>

</body>
</html>

Save the text file as "Home.htm".

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